Who are the 10 Ashara Mubashara (العشرة المبشرون)
Ten companions (Sahaba) of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) have been specially mentioned by him (ﷺ) as being promised Jannat (Paradise). Their names are:
- Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq (RA)
- Umar ibn al-Khattab (RA)
- Uthman ibn a-Affan (RA)
- Ali ibn Abu-Talib (RA)
- Talhah ibn-Ubaydullah (RA)
- Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (RA)
- Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf (RA)
- Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas (RA)
- Sa’eed bin Zaid (RA)
- Abu’ Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah (RA)
May Allah be pleased with them all. They are called the Ashara Mubashara, the ten who were given the glad tidings of paradise.
1. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq
Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq (RA) was born in the year 51 A.H. in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, and he passed away in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, two years and three months after the death of the Prophet (ﷺ). He is considered to be the first free adult male to embrace Islam. As such was the closest companion to Prophet (ﷺ). Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq (RA) contributed a lot to spreading Islam among the people and defending it, and he stood by the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) in front of the polytheists. He was well known for buying and liberating slaves from the hands of the polytheists to save them from the torture they were inflicting on them. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq held a great place in the heart of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). He was his friend, companion, and father of his wife, and he was the companion of the Messenger, Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), in his migration from Mecca to Medina. After the demise of the Prophet (ﷺ), he became the first Calipha of the Muslims.
2. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab
Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (RA) embraced Islam when he heard Khabab Ibn Al-Arat teaching the Holy Qur’an to his sister Fatima and her husband, Sa’eed bin Zaid. He was known for his asceticism and strength in manifesting the truth and defending Islam.
He was strong and did not fear anyone. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab is considered the first to gather people in the month of Ramadan to perform the Taraweeh prayers. He became the Caliph after the death of Abu-Bakr (RA). Omar bin Al-Khattab was famously known for going around Madinah at night to understand and help his subjects. Omar was modest, and he was martyred when performing dawn prayer at the mosque. He was buried in the Prophet’s room located in the Prophet’s Mosque next to the Prophet (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (RA).
3. Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan (RA) embraced Islam with the help of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq. Uthman ibn Affan is the first to emigrate to Abyssinia, the first to conclude the Qur’an in one rak’ah and the first to build the mosque. He was wealthy and was well known for spending his money in the service of defending and propagating Islam. Among the virtues of Uthman ibn Affan (RA) is his purchase of the well of Rumah, which a Jewish man in Medina owned. He made it a waqf for Muslims after purchasing it. He also equipped the Army of Al-Usrah with nine hundred and forty camels and increased over sixty horses, as he brought ten thousand dinars and put them in the hands of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). He loved reading the Qur’an and was extremely modest, He became the 3rd Caliph of Muslims after the death of Umar (R). He expanded the Prophet’s Mosque and the Grand Mosque during that time.
4. Ali bin Abi Thalib
Ali bin Abi Thalib (RA) is the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), born before the Prophethood. He is considered one of the first to believe in the Messenger. He participated in all the expeditions of the Prophet (ﷺ). Ali bin Abi Thalib was known for his asceticism, humility, love for the Messenger, sacrifice for his sake, generosity, and friendship. He became the 4th Calipha of the Muslims.
5. Talhah ibn Ubaydullah
The Messenger (ﷺ), called Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (RA) by several names, including Talhah al-Khair, Talhah al-Fayyad, Saqr Uhud, and Talhah al-Joud. Talhah (RA) was once traveling for trade to the land of Bosra, and there he met a monk and the monk told him that God will send a prophet who will come out of Mecca. So Talhah (RA) was longing for the appearance of this Prophet. When he returned from his business, he learned that his uncle followed the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), so he said: My uncle Abu Bakr (RA) and Muhammad (ﷺ) agree on it, and indeed, it is not misguidance. I know them well, and I have not heard a lie from them, so how can they lie against Allah?! So Talhah ibn Ubaydullah hurried to them and announced his conversion to Islam. He was one of the early adopters of Islam. He immigrated to Medina, and he was known for his generosity and used to spend all his wealth on Muslims and for the sake of Allah.
6. Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam
Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (RA) was born in the year 28 before the Hijrah. He married Asma (RA), the daughter of Abu Bakr (RA). He witnessed all the battles of the Messenger (ﷺ). Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (RA) was the first to raise a sword against polytheists and was at the forefront of the ranks in the Battle of Badr. He was among those assigned by the Prophet (ﷺ) to follow the Quraysh army after the end of the Battle of Uhud. He was carrying one of the banners during the conquest of Mecca, and participated in the conquest of Egypt. His son was the well-known Sahaba Abdullah Ibn Zubayr. His other son Urwah Ibn Zubayr was well known for transmitting hadith from her aunt and the mother of believers Aishah (RA).
7. ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf
‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf (RA) migrated to Abyssinia and to Medina. The Prophet (ﷺ) gave him the name ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf instead of Abd Amr. He died in the thirty-second year of Hijrah and was buried in Al-Baqi’. ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf had a great role in the Battle of Uhud, as he was one of those who stood firm on the day of Uhud with the Messenger (ﷺ).
8. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas
Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas (RA) is considered the first person to shoot an arrow in defense of Islam. He converted to Islam at the age of seventeen. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas had famous incidences, the most important of which was steadfastness on the day of the Battle of Uhud. On that day, only two men remained around the Prophet, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas and Talhah ibn Ubaydullah, and they fought hard on his behalf. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas’ refusal of strife that occurred among the Companions is one of his most important and well-known stances. When some of the Companions came to him asking him to fight with them, he told them that he would not fight with them until they gave him a sword with two eyes and a tongue, saying this is a believer and this is an infidel.
9. Sa’īd bin Zayd
Sa’īd bin Zayd’s (RA) prayers were always answered. There is a famous story of him with a lady Arwa Bint Aws. When she complained to Marwan bin Al-Hakam and claimed that he had stolen some of her lands, he prayed, “Oh Allah, if she is a liar, then blind her and kill her in her house”, then she became blind and fell into the well of her house, and died.
It was also reported that Muawiyah (RA) ordered Marwan bin Al-Hakam to take the pledge of allegiance to his son Yazid from the people of Medina, but he was slow in doing that. So some of them asked him about the reason for his delay, so Marwan said, “Until Sa’īd bin Zayd comes and pledges allegiance; he is the master of the people, and if he pledged allegiance, they will pledge allegiance”. Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah appointed him as the viceroy of Damascus after he conquered it. On the battlefields, he was firm and honorable. On the day of the Yarmouk battle, Khalid ibn al-Walid indicated that Sa’īd bin Zayd would be at the heart of the Muslim ranks.
10. Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
The Messenger (ﷺ) called Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah the trustee of the nation. His most prominent traits are: gentle and humility. He killed his pagan father in the Battle of Badr. Abu Ubaidah died of the plague of Emmaus. Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, and Hudaybiyah, and the Messenger of Allah SAW sent him to the company of the army of Dhat al-Khubat. He was also sent as a governor to the people of Najran.
Allah SWT knows best.